1187 – Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin.
1865 – Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland is published.
1881 – The Tuskegee Institute opens in Alabama.
1918 – Bolsheviks kill Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family (Julian calendar date).
1997 – NASA’s Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.